Stefan Kohler

Welcome to my website.

I am research associate at the Heidelberg Institute of Global Health of Heidelberg University, where I lead a research group on economics and global health. I hold a doctorate in economics from the European University Institute in Florence and a medical degree from the Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin. I am a member of the Global Young Academy (GYA), an academic editor for PLOS Global Public Health, and a collaborator in the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Collaborator Network. In the past, I co-led the Global Health Working Group of the GYA and was the speaker of the Global Health Section of the German Public Health Association (DGPH).

Areas of interest

  • Cost analysis and economic evaluation

  • Health services and financing

  • Maternal care and midwifery

  • HIV/AIDS and TB treatment and prevention

  • Behavioral economics



[Google Scholar | ORCID | ResearchGate]

Original research

  1. Kohler S, Sitali N, Achar J, Paul N. Costs and import costs of past, present, and future TB drug regimens: A case study for Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan. Journal of Public Health 2022: article ID fdac124. (pdf)

  2. Kohler S, Dalal S, Hettema A, Matse S, Bärnighausen T, Paul N. Human resource needs and costs for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis provision in nurse-led primary care in Eswatini and opportunities for task sharing. Human Resources for Health 2022; 20: article number 75. (pdf)

  3. Kohler S, Dalal S, Hettema A, Matse S, Bärnighausen T, Paul N. Out-of-pocket expenses and time spent on clinic visits among HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis users and other clinic attendees in Eswatini. AIDS and Behavior 2022. (pdf)

  4. Kohler S, Bärnighausen T, Eichenauer J, Scheichenbauer C, Paul N. Gesundheit und berufliche Zufriedenheit von freiberuflichen und angestellten Hebammen: Ergebnisse einer Hebammenbefragung in Baden-Württemberg [Health and professional satisfaction of freelance and employed midwives: Results of a survey of midwives in Baden-Wuerttemberg ]. Das Gesundheitswesen 2022; 84: 1–11. (pdf)

  5. König A, Nabieva J, Manssouri A, Antia K, Dambach P, Deckert A, Horstick O, Kohler S, Winkler V. A systematic scoping review on migrant health coverage in Thailand. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease. 2022; 7: 166. (pdf)

  6. Kohler S, Sitali N, Achar J, Paul N. The contribution of drug import to the cost of tuberculosis treatment: a cost analysis of longer, shorter and short drug regimens for Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan. PLOS Global Public Health 2022; 2: e0000567. (pdf)

  7. Paul N, Limprecht-Heusner M, Eichenauer J, Scheichenbauer C, Bärnighausen T, Kohler S. Burnout among midwives and attitudes toward midwifery: a cross-sectional study from Baden-Württemberg, Germany. European Journal of Midwifery 2022; 6: 1–12. (pdf)

  8. Elsbernd K, Emmert-Fees KMF, Erbe A, Ottobrino V, Kroidl A, Bärnighausen T, Geisler BP, Kohler S. Costs and cost-effectiveness of HIV early infant diagnosis in low- and middle-income countries: a scoping review. Infectious Diseases of Poverty 2022; 11: article number 82. (pdf)

  9. Abderbwih E, Mahanani MR, Deckert A, Antia K, Agbaria N, Dambach P, Kohler S, Horstick O, Winkler V, Wendt AS. The impact of school-based nutrition interventions on parents and other family members: a systematic literature review. Nutrients. 2022;14:2399. (pdf)

  10. Inghels M, Kim H-Y, Tanser F, Hettema A, McMahon SA, Oldenburg CE, Matse S, Kohler S, Geldsetzer P, Bärnighausen T. PrEP uptake and delivery setting preferences among clients visiting six healthcare facilities in Eswatini. AIDS and Behavior 2022. (pdf)

  11. Kohler S, Sitali N, Achar J, Paul N. Programme costs of longer and shorter tuberculosis drug regimens and drug import: a modelling study for Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan. ERJ Open Research 2022: 006222021 (pdf).

  12. Stieglitz LM, Bärnighausen T, Leyna GH, Kazonda P, Killewo J, Rohr JK, Kohler S. Patterns of comorbidity and multimorbidity among middle-aged and elderly women in peri-urban Tanzania. Journal of Multimorbidity and Comorbidity 2022; 12: 1–12 (pdf).

  13. Kohler S, Ndungwani R, Burgert M, Sibandze D, Matse S, Hettema A. The costs of creatinine testing in the context of a HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis demonstration project in Eswatini. AIDS and Behavior 2022; 26: 728738. (pdf)

  14. Mahanani MR, Abderbwih E, Wendt AS, Deckert A, Antia K, Horstick O, Dambach P, Kohler S, Winkler V. Long-term outcomes of in utero Ramadan exposure: a systematic literature review. Nutrients 2021; 13: 4511. (pdf)

  15. Global Burden of Disease 2020 Health Financing Collaborator Network, including Kohler S. Tracking development assistance for health and for COVID-19: a review of development assistance, government, out-of-pocket, and other private spending on health for 204 countries and territories, 1990–2050. Lancet 2021; 398: 1317–1343. (pdf)

  16. Kohler S, Sitali N, Paul N. A framework for assessing import costs of medical supplies and results for a tuberculosis program in Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan. Health Data Science 2021: article ID 9813732. (pdf)

  17. Kohler S. Personalized medicine drugs and the burden of disease in Germany. Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Services Research 2021: article ID rmab025. (pdf | free-access)

  18. Geldsetzer P, Bärnighausen K, Hettema A, McMahon SA, Dalal S, Chase RP, Oldenburg CE, Kohler S, Chen S, Dlamini P, Mavuso M, Hughey AB, Matse S, Bärnighausen T. A stepped-wedge randomized trial and qualitative study of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis uptake among the general population in Eswatini. Science Translational Medicine 2020; 12: eaba4487. (pdf)

  19. Global Burden of Disease 2019 Universal Health Coverage Collaborator Network, including Kohler S. Measuring universal health coverage based on an index of effective coverage of health services in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. Lancet 2020; 396: 1250–1284. (pdf)

  20. Global Burden of Disease 2019 Health Financing Collaborator Network, including Kohler S. Health sector spending and spending on HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria, and development assistance for health: progress towards Sustainable Development Goal 3. Lancet 2020; 396: 693–724. (pdf)

  21. Kohler S, Keil T, Müller-Riemenschneider F, Reinhold T, Willich SN, Roll S. Usage of a German prevention and health promotion web portal and cost per pageview: a life-cycle assessment. Digital Health 2019; 5: 1–15. (pdf)

  22. Global Burden of Disease 2018 Health Financing Collaborator Network, including Kohler S. Past, present, and future of global health financing: a review of development assistance, government, out-of-pocket, and other private spending on health for 195 countries, 1995–2050. Lancet 2019; 393: 2233–2260. (pdf)

  23. Kohler S, Schlag KH. Inequality aversion causes equal or unequal division in alternating-offer bargaining. Bulletin of Economic Research 2019; 71: 47–57. (pdf)

  24. Kohler S, Bärnighausen T, Abdallah L, Reckert T. Versorgungssituation in der Geburtshilfe in Baden-Württemberg: Ergebnisse einer Elternumfrage durch die Kinder- und Jugendärzte zum Zeitpunkt der U6-Untersuchung [Care situation in Midwifery and Obstetrics in Baden-Wuerttemberg: Results of a parents survey by pediatricians at the time of the U6-examination]. PädNetzS Info 2018; 5: 6–10. (pdf)

  25. Kohler S, Sidney Annersted K, Diwan V, Lindholm L, Randive B, Vora K, De Costa A. Postpartum quality of life in Indian women after vaginal birth and cesarean section: a pilot study using the EQ-5D-5L descriptive system. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2018; 18: 427. (pdf)

  26. Siedner MJ, Hettema A, Hughey A, Oldenburg CE, Kohler S, Bärnighausen K, McMahon S, Jia C, Lejeune C, Matse S, Bärnighausen T. Preference for injectable over oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis in public-sector primary-care clinics in Swaziland. AIDS 2018; 32: 1541–1542. (pdf)

  27. Kohler S, Asadov DA, Bründer A, Healy S, Khamraev AK, Sergeeva N, Tinnemann P. Health system support and health system strengthening: Two key facilitators to the implementation of ambulatory tuberculosis treatment in Uzbekistan. Health Economics Review 2016; 6: 1–11. (pdf, poster on RG) Русский перевод статьи: Поддержка и укрепление системы здравоохранения: два ключевых вопроса в амбулаторном лечении туберкулеза в Узбекистане. (pdf)

  28. Kohler, S. Workplace health promotion of large and medium-sized businesses: The relationship between and predictors of activities in two German states. International Journal of Workplace Health Management 2016; 9: 184–201. (pdf) (questionnaire: de|en)

  29. Kohler S, Hofmann A. Can motivational interviewing in emergency care reduce alcohol consumption in young people? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Alcohol and Alcoholism 2015; 50: 107–117. (pdf)

  30. Penkalla AM, Kohler S. Urbanicity and mental health in Europe: a systematic review. European Journal of Mental Health 2014; 9: 163–177. (pdf)

  31. Kohler S. Guilt causes equal or unequal division in alternating-offer bargaining. Economics Bulletin 2014; 34: 1611–1617. (pdf)

  32. Eckert S, Kohler S. Urbanization and health in developing countries: a systematic review. World Health & Population 2014; 15: 7–20. (pdf)

  33. Kohler S, Minkner P. Smoke-free laws and direct democracy initiatives on smoking bans in Germany: a systematic review and quantitative assessment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2014; 11: 685–700. (pdf)

  34. Kohler S. Can internet access growth help reduce the global burden of noncommunicable diseases? Online Journal of Public Health Informatics 2013; 5: 1–8. (pdf)

  35. Kohler S. More fair play in an ultimatum game after resettlement in Zimbabwe: a field experiment and a structural model. PLOS ONE 2013; 8: e64791. (pdf)

  36. Kohler S. Envy can promote more equal division in alternating-offer bargaining. Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics 2013; 6: 31–41. (pdf)

  37. Brüggenjürgen B, Kohler S, Ezzat N, Reinhold T, Willich SN. Cost-effectiveness of antiarrhythmic medications in patients suffering from atrial fibrillation. PharmacoEconomics 2013; 31:195213. (pdf)

  38. Kohler S. Incomplete information about social preferences explains equal division and delay in bargaining. Games 2012; 3: 119–137. (pdf)

  39. Kohler S. Altruism and fairness in experimental decisions. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 2011; 80: 101–109. (pdf)

Reviews, perspective & popular science articles

  1. Le Vu MN, Do AL, Boyer L, Tran QC, Kohler S, Ahmed SI, Molnar A, Vu TS, Vo NTH, Nguyen LMV, Vu LG, Dam VAT, Duong T, Do DLN, Do NM, Mclntyre RS, Latkin C, Ho RCM, Ho CSH. A Review of the Effectiveness, Feasibility, and Acceptability of Art Therapy for Children and Adolescents during the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2022; 19: 11612. (pdf)

  2. López-Vergès S, Urbani B, Fernández Rivas D, Kaur-Ghumaan S, Coussens AK, Moronta-Barrios F, Bhattarai S, Niamir L, Siciliano V, Molnar A, Weltman A, Dhimal M, Arya SS, Cloete KJ, Awan AT, Kohler S, Sharma CS, Rios Rojas C, Shimpuku Y, Ganle J, Matin MM, Nzweundji JG, Badre A, Carmona-Mora P. Mitigating losses: How scientific organisations can help address the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on early career researchers. Humanities and Social Sciences Communications 2021; 8: article number 284. (pdf)

  3. Kohler, S. Deutschlands Engagement in globaler Gesundheit – was kann die Wissenschaft beitragen? [Germany's engagement in global health – what can science contribute?]. Info_Dienst für Gesundheitsförderung 2019; 1: 18–19. (pdf)

  4. Kohler S. Die Vermessung der globalen Gesundheit [Measuring global health]. Gesundheit und Gesellschaft | Wissenschaft 2019; 19: 16–23. (pdf)

  5. Kohler S. Precision medicine – moving away from one-size-fits-all. Quest: Science for South Africa 2018; 14: 12–15. (pdf)

  6. Kohler S. Entwicklung und Stand der personalisierten Medizin in Deutschland [Development and status of personalized medicine in Germany]. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 2018; 143: 1624–1631. (pdf)

  7. Kohler S. Personalized medicine and global health. Public Health Forum 2017; 25: 244–248. (pdf)

  8. Kohler S, Willich SN. Lessons from the development of a web portal on prevention and health promotion. Public Health Forum 2015; 23: 149–152. (pdf)

  9. Kohler S, Asadov DA, Bründer A, Healy S, Khamraev AK, Sergeeva N, Tinnemann P. Ambulatory tuberculosis treatment in post-Semashko health care systems needs supportive financing mechanisms. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2014; 18: 1390–1395. (pdf) Русский перевод статьи: Амбулаторное лечение туберкулеза в системах здравоохранения, основанных на модели пост-Семашко, требует вспомогательных механизмов финансирования. (pdf)

  10. Hofmann A, Kohler S. Motivierende Gesprächsführung als Kurzintervention bei jungen Menschen mit auffälligem Alkoholkonsum [Motivational interviewing as a brief intervention for young people with conspicuous alcohol consumption]. Abhängigkeiten 2013; 19: 85–107. (pdf)

  11. Reinhold T, Kohler S. Prävention und Gesundheitsförderung in Berlin und Brandenburg: Ein Präventionsatlas gibt Orientierung bei der Vielzahl verschiedener Gesundheitsangebote [Prevention and health promotion in Berlin and Brandenburg: An atlas of prevention gives orientation in the multitude of health activities]. In: Gesundheitsstandort Berlin-Brandenburg. Berlin: Kulturbuch-Verlag, 2012, p. 51. (pdf)

Chapters, reports & monographs

  1. Reuter A, Bärnighausen T, Kohler S. Global Ageing and Health. In: Bloom DE, Sousa-Poza A, Sunde U, editors. Handbook on the Economics of Ageing. London: Routledge, forthcoming.

  2. Kohler S, Roser M, Geldsetzer P, Bärnighausen T. Ökonomie und globale Gesundheit [Economics and Global Health]. In: Bonk M., Ulrichs T (eds). Global Health: Das Konzept der Globalen Gesundheit. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2021, pp. 523–556 (pdf).

  3. Kohler S, Paul N, Bärnighausen T, Geldsetzer P. Ökonomische Bewertung in der globalen Gesundheit [Economic Evaluation in Global Health]. In: Bonk M., Ulrichs T. (eds). Global Health: Das Konzept der Globalen Gesundheit. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2021, pp. 557–580 (pdf).

  4. Doğan Ö, Gepp S, Hommes F, Kohler S, Jung L, Mohsenpour A, Moritz K, Schuster A, Schwienhorst-Stich EM, Stratil J, Tinnemann P. Globale Gesundheit [Global Health]. In: Teichert U, Tinnemann P (eds) Lehrbuch für den Öffentlichen Gesundheitsdienst. Düsseldorf: Akademie für Öffentliches Gesundheitswesen, 2020. (pdf)

  5. Kohler S, Bärnighausen T. Entwicklung und aktuelle Versorgungssituation in der Geburtshilfe in Baden-Württemberg: Bericht für den Runden Tisch Geburtshilfe in Baden-Württemberg [Development and Current Care Situation in Midwifery and Obstetrics in Baden-Württemberg: Report for the Round Table on Midwifery and Obstetrics in Baden-Wuerttemberg]. Heidelberg: Heidelberger Institut für Global Health, 2018. (pdf, presentation on RG)

  6. Gerhardus A, Bärnighausen T, Bruchhausen W, Jahn A, Kohler S, Razum O, Rehfuess E. Neue Strategie der Bundesregierung zu Globaler Gesundheit: Positionspapier der Wissenschaft [New Federal Government Strategy on Global Health: Science Position Paper]. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Public Health, 2018. (pdf)

  7. Matuschke I, Kohler S. Urbanisierung und Ernährungssicherung [Urbanization and Food Security]. In: WeltRisikoBericht 2014 [WorldRiskReport 2014]. Berlin/Bonn: Bündnis Entwicklung Hilft [Alliance Development Works] und [and] United Nations University – Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS), 2014, pp. 30–34. (in German: pdf) (in English: pdf)

  8. Kohler S, Nocon M, Müller-Riemenschneider F, Reinhold T, Willich SN. Der Präventionsatlas Berlin-Brandenburg: Strukturierte Informationen zu Prävention und Gesundheitsförderung [The Berlin-Brandenburg Altas of Prevention: Structured information on prevention and health promotion]. In: Kirch W, Hoffmann T, Pfaff H (eds) Prävention und Versorgung. Stuttgart: Thieme, 2012, pp. 138–147. (pdf, poster on RG)

  9. Kohler S, Müller-Riemenschneider F, Willich SN. Prävention und Gesundheitsförderung in Berlin und Brandenburg [Prevention and health promotion in Berlin and Brandenburg]. Berlin: HealthCapital Berlin Brandenburg, 2012. (pdf)

  10. Kohler S. Inequality aversion and stochastic decision-making: experimental evidence from Zimbabwean villages after land reform. In: Innocenti A, Sbriglia P (eds) Games, Rationality and Behavior: Essays on Behavioral Game Theory and Experiments. Basingstoke: Palgrave McMillan, 2008, pp. 63–100. (pdf)

Personal Information

Academic positions

  • 01/16— Research associate and group leader, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg Institute of Global Health (formerly: Institute of Public Health), Germany

  • 04/15—11/15 Research coordinator, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Public Health Sciences, Global Health Interventions and Evaluation, Stockholm, Sweden

  • 09/10—08/12 Research associate, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Institute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology and Health Economics, Germany

Taught courses

  • Global Health Economics Seminar (Heidelberg University)

  • Health Economics, Health System and Public Health (Heidelberg University & Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin)

  • Introduction to Health Economics (Heidelberg University)

  • Research Methods in Global Health (Heidelberg University)

  • Health Metrics and Economic Evaluation (Heidelberg University & Karolinska Institutet)


  • Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, MD, 05/14

  • Harvard Medical School, Exchange Clerkship Program, summer 13

  • European University Institute, Doctor of Economics, 02/07

  • University of Oxford, Visiting scholar at the Centre for the Study of African Economies, fall 04

  • University of Bonn, Diplom Volkswirt, 11/02

  • Australian National University, Bachelor of Economics, 04/00

  • University of Konstanz, Vordiplom in Economics, 08/99